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Browsing articles from "October, 2011"

Singkong

Oct 31, 2011   //   by   //   Artikel Indonesia, Cassava, Ketela, Singkong  //  1 Comment

Singkong, yang juga dikenal sebagai ketela pohon atau ubi kayu, adalah pohon tahunan tropika dan subtropika dari keluarga Euphorbiaceae. Umbinya dikenal luas sebagai makanan pokok penghasil karbohidrat dan daunnya sebagai sayuran. (sumber : http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubi_kayu)

Deskripsi

ketelaMemiliki nama latin manihot utilissima. Merupakan umbi atau akar pohon yang panjang dengan fisik rata-rata bergaris tengah 2-3 cm dan panjang 50-80 cm, tergantung dari jenis singkong yang ditanam. Daging umbinya berwarna putih atau kekuning-kuningan. Umbi singkong tidak tahan simpan meskipun ditempatkan di lemari pendingin. Gejala kerusakan ditandai dengan keluarnya warna biru gelap akibat terbentuknya asam sianida yang bersifat racun bagi manusia.

Umbi singkong merupakan sumber energi yang kaya karbohidrat namun sangat miskin protein. Sumber protein yang bagus justru terdapat pada daun singkong karena mengandung asam amino metionin.

Sejarah dan pengaruh ekonomi

Jenis singkong Manihot esculenta pertama kali dikenal di Amerika Selatan kemudian dikembangkan pada masa pra-sejarah di Brasil dan Paraguay. Bentuk-bentuk modern dari spesies yang telah dibudidayakan dapat ditemukan bertumbuh liar di Brasil selatan. Meskipun spesies Manihot yang liar ada banyak, semua varitas M. esculenta dapat dibudidayakan.

Produksi singkong dunia diperkirakan mencapai 184 juta ton pada tahun 2002. Sebagian besar produksi dihasilkan di Afrika 99,1 juta ton dan 33,2 juta ton di Amerika Latin dan Kepulauan Karibia.

Singkong ditanam secara komersial di wilayah Indonesia (waktu itu Hindia Belanda) pada sekitar tahun 1810[1], setelah sebelumnya diperkenalkan orang Portugis pada abad ke-16 ke Nusantara dari Brasil. Read more >>

TEPUNG TAPIOKA

Oct 31, 2011   //   by   //   Artikel Indonesia, Cassava, Ketela, Singkong, Tapioka  //  1 Comment

TEPUNG TAPIOKA

  1. PENDAHULUANSerealia dan umbi-umbian banyak tumbuh di Indonesia. Produksi serealia terutama beras sebagai bahan pangan pokok dan umbi-umbian cukup tinggi. Begitu pula dengan bertambahnya penduduk, kebutuhan akan serealia dan umbi-umbian sebagai sumber energi pun terus meningkat. Tanaman dengan kadar karbohidrat tinggi seperti halnya serealia dan umbi-umbian pada umumnya tahan terhadap suhu tinggi. Serealia dan umbi-umbian sering dihidangkan dalam bentuk segar, rebusan atau kukusan, hal ini tergantung dari selera.Usaha penganekaragaman pangan sangat penting artinya sebagai usaha untuk mengatasi masalah ketergantungan pada satu bahan pangan pokok saja. Misalnya dengan mengolah serealia dan umbi-umbian menjadi berbagai bentuk awetan yang mempunyai rasa khas dan tahan lama disimpan. Bentuk olahan tersebut berupa tepung, gaplek, tapai, keripik dan lainya. Hal ini sesuai dengan program pemerintah khususnya dalam mengatasi masalah kebutuhan bahan pangan, terutama non-beras. Ubi kayu atau singkong (manihot ) merupakan salah satu bahan makanan sumber karbohidrat (sumber energi).
    Tabel 1. Komposisi Ubi Kayu (per 100 gram bahan)
    KOMPONEN KADAR
    Kalori 146,00 kal
    Air 62,50 gram
    Phosphor 40,00 mg
    Karbohidrat 34,00 gram
    Kalsium 33,00 mg
    Vitamin C 30,00 mg
    Protein 1,20 gram
    Besi 0,70 mg
    Lemak 0,30 gram
    Vitamin B1 0,06 mg
    Berat dapat dimakan 75,00

    Ubi kayu dalam keadaan segar tidak tahan lama. Untuk pemasaran yang memerlukan waktu lama, ubi kayu harus diolah dulu menjadi bentuk lain yang lebih awet, seperti gaplek, tapioka (tepung singkong), tapai, peuyeum, keripik singkong dan lain-lain. Read more >>

Pembuatan Tapioka Sederhana

Oct 31, 2011   //   by   //   Artikel Indonesia, Cassava, Ketela, Singkong, Tapioka  //  2 Comments

Pengeringan Tapioka Sederhana1. PENDAHULUAN
Tapioka adalah tepung pati ubi kayu (singkong,ketela atau cassava). Produk ini digunakan untuk pengolahan makanan, pakan, kosmetika, industri kimia dan pengolahan kayu. Ubi kayu dapat diolah menjadi tapioka dengan cara sederhana menggunakan alat-alat yang biasa terdapat di dapur rumah tangga. Untuk industri kecil, pengolahan sudah memerlukan alat-alat mekanis untuk mempertinggi efisiensi hasil dan biaya. Alat-alat tersebut dapat dibuat di bengkel konstruksi biasa dengan menggunakan bahan-bahan lokal. Untuk industri menengah dan besar, pengolahan memerlukan alat-alat moderen yang bekerja secara efisien dengan kapasitas besar. Read more >>

Kantong Plastik Tapioka Ramah Lingkungan

Oct 30, 2011   //   by   //   Artikel Indonesia, Tapioka  //  1 Comment

Isu lingkungan kini semakin ramai diperbincangkan masyarakat dunia. Jika dulunya kepedulian terhadap lingkungan dianggap sebagai kegiatan yang membuang-buang biaya, kini maraknya global warming membuat ecopreneur atau grecoplaseen industri dijadikan sebagai salah satu peluang bisnis yang memiliki nilai jual cukup menarik di mata para konsumen. Sekarang ini setiap orang mulai peduli terhadap pemanasan global dan menghindari produk-produk yang tidak ramah lingkungan. Sehingga wajar adanya bila saat ini produk yang ramah lingkungan memiliki daya saing yang cukup tinggi dan diminati pasar lokal maupun internasional.

Salah satu terobosan baru yang berhasil diciptakan anak bangsa yaitu kantong plastik tapioka ramah lingkungan. Melihat ancaman sampah kantong plastik yang semakin membahayakan lingkungan, PT. Tirta Marta mengangkat permasalahan tersebut sebagai peluang usaha baru yang diyakininya memiliki prospek bisnis sangat besar. Setelah berhasil menciptakan produk oxium (sejenis aditif yang bisa mengurai sampah plastik dalam kurun waktu 2 tahun),  kini PT. Tirta Marta kembali meluncurkan produk baru yang tidak kalah inovatif, yaitu ecoplas (kantong plastik dari tepung tapioka). Tapioka menghasilkan ampas yang juga bisa dimanfaatkan yang disebut onggok. Read more >>

Nata de Cassava dari Limbah Tapioka

Oct 28, 2011   //   by   //   Artikel Indonesia, Tapioka  //  1 Comment

Orang mungkin sudah banyak mengenal nata de coco sebagai penganan hasil fermentasi air kelapa. Tapi, belum banyak yang mengenal nata de cassava. Kudapan baru hasil olahan limbah pembuatan tepung tapioka ini kini makin banyak diminati. Peluang usahanya pun kini terbuka. Limbah tapioka padat disebut onggok juga sudah lebih dahulu bisa dimanfaatkan.

limbah tapiokaPernahkah Anda mencicipi nata de cassava? Jangan-jangan baru kali ini nama ini hadir di telinga Anda. Ya, dari namanya jelas bisa ditebak kalau penganan ini berbahan dasar singkong.

Bentuk dan tekstur nata de cassava mirip nata de coco.  Putih dan kenyal. Hanya saja ada perbedaannya. Selain rasa nata de cassava yang berasa singkong, penganan ini dibuat dari hasil fermentasi air perasan sisa produksi tepung tapioka dengan mikroba acetobacter xylinum. Sementara nata de coco dibuat dari fermentasi air kelapa. Read more >>

Starch … a renewable raw material

Oct 27, 2011   //   by   //   Artikel English, Tapioka  //  1 Comment

Starch is abundant. All major agricultural crops contain starch. Colder climates favour potato growing, the tropics cassava, while grain varieties are grown all over the world. With sun and water as the main limitations, fifteen tons of starch dry mater can be achieved per hectare.

Modern techniques enable starch to be extracted from agricultural crops with high yield and extreme purity, making starch the most versatile raw material used within the food and chemical industries. The starch granule is a compact package of pure glucose polymer.

The purity and efficient moisture absorbing properties of starch have made it indispensable in the production of medicinal tablets and as a moisture regulator.

Polymer releases from the granule during cooking. At 60 oC, the polymer begins to hydrate, adding its viscosity and gelling power to the water. This is the way puddings are made in the home – just by using native starch. The food industry also employs native starch as a binder and thickening agent in snacks, meat products, sausages, etc.

Although native starch does have its industrial uses, most often industry requires the functionality of modified starch. The modification is achieved in one of two ways – either by the starch producer, who modifies the starch without disrupting the granules, or by the end-user who cooks and modifies the starch in a single step operation. The first method results in a granular product good for storage and the other in a ready-to-use paste. The two methods do not always act as a substitute for the other.

The single largest consumer of modified starch is the paper industry.

Starches are used as wet-end additives, as size press starches, as binders in coatings and as adhesives. Cationic starches provide retention at the wet-end and reduce the amount of pollutants released. Oxidised starch is a good film-forming product – a favoured material for coating and surface sizing. Thin boiling starches produced by acid or enzyme treatment are used as well.

Special starch produced by esterification or combined treatments are used in coatings, glues, the production of cardboard, etc.

The Stein Hall process of manufacturing corrugated cardboard employs both cooked and uncooked starch. Cooked starch adds viscosity while uncooked starch swells up as the cardboard liner passes the heating rolls, giving instant bond. Pre-swollen starch is used alone in no-carrier adhesives.

The process of drilling for oil uses starch in the suspension of excavated mud. During this process, starch is either employed alone or in combination with other stabilisers, e.g. xanthan gum. Within the textile industry, thin boiling starch has made a comeback in the competition with petrochemicals.

The addition of chemical groups to the starch chain improves the clarity and stability of the gel during cooking, mixing and freezing. These chemicals include propylene oxide, acetic acid, and metaphosphates. They form tailor-made hydrocolloids, which go into desserts, ice cream, puddings, wine gums, etc.

Starch is the cheap and reliable source of energy for the biochemical manufacturing of alcohol, enzymes and fine chemicals. When broken down by enzymes or acids it becomes the basic ingredient for producing glucose, fructose and sorbitol.

Bio Ethanol for automobile fuel

Oct 25, 2011   //   by   //   Artikel English, Tapioka  //  2 Comments

bensin hijauEthanol has powered automobiles for more than a century. Ford designed his model T for ethanol as a fuel. Gradually petroleum took over and became the dominating transport fuel. In the seventies Brazil adopted an ethanol strategy and today motor fuel grade ethanol (MFGE) is an extremely fast growing market worldwide.

Bioethanol is renewable, because it is made from glucose created in green plants by the sun, the so called photosynthesis:

(1) 6CO2 + 6H2O + sunshine ? C6H12O6 + 6O2
Sun energy transforms carbon dioxide (CO2) into glucose (C6H12O6). This glucose is transformed once again to ethanol (C2H6O) by classic yeast fermentation:
(2) C6H12O6 ? 2C2H6O + 2CO2 + heat
Heat is released calling for cooling of the fermentation vessels and heat is released again when the ethanol is burned in the combustion engine:
(3) C2H6O + 3O2 ? 2CO2 + 3H2O + heat Read more >>

Collaboration on cassava-based ethanol

Oct 12, 2011   //   by   //   Artikel English  //  1 Comment

Thailand has teamed up with neighbouring countries to develop ethanol from fresh cassava, aiming to turn the kingdom into a regional technology and production centre for cassava-based renewable fuel.

Under a programme called South-South Technology Transfer: Ethanol Production from Cassava, which is funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GIF), Thailand will be a focal point in forging cooperation with Vietnam, Laos, and Burma.

The four-year project, which will be launched next year, includes two pilot ethanol plants to be built in Thailand and Vietnam. The facilities could be developed for commercial-scale production in the next phase through a partnership with interested investors and banks. Read more >>

Tapioca flour and exports growth areas

Oct 12, 2011   //   by   //   Artikel English, Cassava, Singkong  //  3 Comments

cassava balance sheetThe Thai tapioca industry will focus on flour exports and Asian markets as part of its growth strategy over the next five years, when the exports of tapioca products could reach 100 billion baht.

The Commerce Ministry projected that by 2016, domestic demand for cassava roots in ethanol production will surge to 13 million tonnes, while exports could top 22.5 million tonnes, totalling 35.5 million tonnes, up 42% from the current production levels.

Speaking at the World Tapioca Conference 2011, Yanyong Phuangrach, the ministry’s permanent secretary, said Thailand should focus more on exporting tapioca flour to substitute for a reduction in the export of tapioca chips and pellets.

The proportion of flour exports is expected to rise to 65% from 51% now, with chips and pellets making up the rest.

Mr Yanyong said the country should build a good image and accept the standards of its tapioca flour and other products to create confidence among importers, buyers and local consumers. Read more >>

Cassava prices continue to climb

Oct 12, 2011   //   by   //   Artikel English  //  1 Comment

Harga ketelaCassava prices continued to move up into the second half of 2011 although the movement is slower than last year. Data from the Ministry of Commerce noted in the consumer price of cassava has risen 1.13% in the first half of 2011, the average price in January Rp 2988 per kilogram (kg) to Rp 3022 per kg in June 2011.

Rhomy Irawan, Second Secretary Cassava Farmers Association of Indonesia (Aspesindo) said the current high price increases that occurred in cassava farmers. From an average price of fresh cassava maximum of Rp 600 to Rp 650 per kg to Rp 900 to Rp 1100 per kg, this price varies depending on the type of cassava and cassava garden access.

“The price of land has increased beyond our expectations, this might be because there is a rise in demand. But we still observe whether the increase is only temporary because there are speculators or will be stable,” said Rhomy via telephone on Tuesday (5 / 7).

Cassava Indonesia Society Head I Suhayo Husen said the price increase is driven by high demand from both domestic industry and overseas. Husen said Indofood demand for semi-finished cassava processed into chips alone reached 200,000 tons to 300,000 tons per year, whereas to produce 1 kg of chips it takes about 3.5 kg of fresh cassava. Read more >>

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